DR.Manmohan Singh was born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.
Singh was born to Gurmukh Singh and Amrit Kaur on 26 September 1932 , in Gah, Punjab, He lost his mother when he was very young and was raised by his paternal grandmother, to whom he was very close.
Singh’s family migrated to Amritsar India during its partition in 1947. , where he studied at Hindu College. He attended Punjab University, then in Hoshiarpur, Punjab, studying Economics and got his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1952 and 1954, respectively, standing first throughout his academic career. . He completed his Economics Tripos at University of Cambridge as he was a member of St John’s College in 1957. After obtaining his doctorate in economics from1960-62 University of Oxford, After completing his D.Phil, Singh returned to India until 1966 when he went to work for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1966–1969 . From 1969 to 1971, Singh was a Professor of International Trade at the Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi.
In 1972, Singh was Chief Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Finance and in 1976 he was Secretary in the Finance Ministry. In 1980–1982 he was at the Planning Commission, and in 1982, he was appointed Governor of the Reserve Bank of India under then Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and held the post until 1985. He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission (India) from 1985 to 1987.Following his tenure at the Planning Commission, he was Secretary General of the South Commission, an independent economic policy think tank headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland from 1987 to November 1990. He After began his bureaucratic career when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an adviser in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Over the 70s and 80s, Singh held several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief Economic Adviser (1972–76), governor of the Reserve Bank (1982–85) and head of the Planning Commission (1985–87).
Singh returned to India from Geneva in November 1990 and held the post as the Ad visor to Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs during the tenure of V. P. Singh In March 1991, he became Chairman of the University Grants Commission. In June 1991, India’s Prime Minister at the time, P. V. Narasimha Rao, chose Singh to be his Finance Minister. Singh told Mark Tully the British journalist in 2005 “On the day (Rao) was formulating his cabinet, he sent his Principal Secretary to me saying, ‘The PM would like you to become the Minister of Finance’. I didn’t take it seriously. He eventually tracked me down the next morning, rather angry, and demanded that I get dressed up and come to Rashtrapati Bhavan for the swearing in. So that’s how I started in politics.
In 1991, as India faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao surprisingly inducted the a political Singh into his cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalized India’s economy .